Totally Looks Like.com:
The painting is "God the Geometer," the medieval depiction of The Creator using a compass to design a swirling universe with complex edges.
The Fractal is a version of the Mandelbrot Set, a visualization of the pattern that arises from the famous equation formulated by Benoit Mandelbrot.
Somehow, the ancient genius who painted the image of the Universe was able to accurately depict the complex, recursive quality of Reality that can now be modeled through fractal geometry... hundreds of years later!
I actually posted about this intriguing similarity waaaaay back in 2006:
The Monkey Buddha Archives: